The paper focuses on the problem of the efficiency of the intermodal transport system. Among the factors determining the transport system the key factors of the intermodal transport development in the Central and Eastern Europe were selected. The analysis included: intermodal transport units (ITU), means of transport and transhipment technologies, as well as organization conditions of intermodal connections. In addition, the costs structure of the intermodal delivery was analysed and its impact on the profitability of the whole supply chain. Observations have led to a number of detailed reflections and those are the basis of the following conclusions and recommendations of a general nature related to the region of the Central and Eastern Europe.