Continuously growing needs of society brings with it the development of industry, new technologies and use of new types of hazardous substances. Each transport of hazardous substance entails some risk of incident. This article deals with problems of transporting of dangerous goods by rail. The paper describes the Directive, which forms the basis of the transport of dangerous goods. In the next chapter, article describes of procedure for international rail transport of dangerous goods (RID) and the system of risk identification for railway transport. The conclusion of the article describes the advantages and disadvantages of transporting of dangerous goods by rail.